I use these categories to teach stability. It helps designers to know options available to them and what they might look like.
Starting with stiffest option at the top and going through to the least stiff option at the bottom. Stiffer stability systems allow taller structures, while less stiff systems create open spaces but require larger structural elements.
It can be hard to show the importance of stability in models, often the materials are not as slender as they would be in a real building and lots of tape and glue is used to connect parts which create moment connections and cantilever columns by accident.
I used to show tension and compression outriggers together; they look similar but have different weights and materials so I’ve split them up for future.
The most stiff are Shear Walls, solid walls taking load in shear and bending. Generally made with CLT, DLT, masonry and reinforced concrete.
Triangulated elements in tension and compression. Generally made with timber and steel.
External elements on opposite sides of the structure in tension. Generally made with rope and steel cables.
External elements on opposite sides of the structure in compression. Generally made in masonry and stone.
Some structures have an Inherent Stability, the shape is stable and able to resist horizontal forces. Generally domes, arches and vaults in compressive materials.
Inclined elements tied together resisting forces in triangulation and bending. Not common but generally made in timber.
Moment connection between the columns and beams to transfer bending. Generally made in timber and steel.
The least stiff, columns in bending with a large moment connection at the base. Generally made in timber, steel and concrete.